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Composer workflow for Drupal 8

Note: The following guide is largely meant for Drupal 8 WxT installations.

Overview

WxT strictly adheres to a Composer-based workflow and tries to follow the best practices laid out by the broader Drupal community. For more information on the benefits of this workflow please consult the official documentation provided in the link below:

Composer also helps facilitate a more security oriented approach whether packaging or deploying a site. In a WxT site the only code in the repository will be custom code and everything else is defined as a dependency. This makes clear what audit-able surface is.

For more information on this please see a recent talk given at DrupalGov:

Composer Project Templates

Reading the provided documentation we are quickly introduced to the methodology of leveraging composer templates as blueprints for managing various Drupal projects. These templates help to provide quick installation of Drupal and / or Drupal distributions through issuing just a few composer commands.

First you need to install composer.

Note: The instructions below refer to the global composer installation. You might need to replace composer with php composer.phar (or similar) for your setup.

After that you can create the appropriate project:

Drupal (standalone)

composer create-project drupal-composer/drupal-project site-name

Lightning (distribution)

composer create-project acquia/lightning-project site-name

WxT (distribution)

composer create-project drupalwxt/wxt-project:8.x-dev site-name

You will notice that WxT has its own composer project template listed above to help you quickly onboard to our distribution. An example was also given of the popular Lightning framework to which WxT extends from. Relevant links are provided below for each of the composer projects.

Note: The composer create-project command passes ownership of all files to the project that is created. You should create a new git repository, and commit all files not excluded by the .gitignore file.

Maintenance

Composer will create a new directory called site-name containing a html directory with a full WxT codebase inside. You can now simply install like you would any other Drupal site.

List of common commands are as follows:

Task Composer
Latest version of a contributed project composer require drupal/PROJECT_NAME:8.*
Specific version of a contributed project composer require drupal/PROJECT_NAME:8.1.0-beta5
Updating all projects including Drupal Core composer update
Updating a single contributed project composer update drupal/PROJECT_NAME
Updating Drupal Core exclusively composer update drupal/core

Note: Remember Composer, unlike Drush, is a dependency manager. If module foo version: 1.0.0 depends on bar version: 3.2.0, Composer will not let you update bar to 3.3.0 (or downgrade it to 3.1.0 respectively).

Source Control

If you peek at the .gitignore we and other drupal projects provide, you’ll immediately notice that certain directories, including all contributed projects, are excluded from source control. In fact in most Composer project’s (like this one), you should never commit your installed dependencies to source control.

When you set up the project, Composer will create a file called composer.lock, which is a list of which dependencies were installed, and in which versions. Commit composer.lock to source control! Then, when your colleagues want to spin up their own copies of the project, all they’ll have to do is run composer install, which will install the correct versions of everything in composer.lock.

What does the template do?

When installing the given composer.json some tasks are taken care of:

  • Drupal will be installed in the html directory
  • Autoloader is implemented to use the generated composer autoloader in vendor/autoload.php, instead of the one provided by Drupal (html/vendor/autoload.php)
  • Modules (packages type drupal-module) will be placed in html/modules/contrib/
  • Theme (packages type drupal-theme) will be placed in html/themes/contrib/
  • Profiles (packages type drupal-profile) will be placed in html/profiles/contrib/
  • Creates default writable versions of settings.php and services.yml.
  • Creates html/sites/default/files directory
  • Latest version of Drush is installed locally for use at vendor/bin/drush
  • Latest version of DrupalConsole is installed locally for use at vendor/bin/drupal
  • Installs optional Drupal Scaffold for Docker composer plugin

Updating Drupal Core

This project will attempt to keep all of your Drupal Core files up-to-date; the project drupal-composer/drupal-scaffold is used to ensure that your scaffold files are updated every time drupal/core is updated. If you customize any of the “scaffolding” files (commonly .htaccess), you may need to merge conflicts if any of your modfied files are updated in a new release of Drupal core.

Structure

    ├── scripts/
    │   └── ScriptHandler.php           --> Additional scripts for composer
    ├── html/                           --> web server root directory
    ├── files_private/                  --> files ignored by git
    ├── drush/
    ├── docker-compose.yml              --> optional: Docker Scaffold Plugin
    ├── docker-compose-ci.yml           --> optional: Docker Scaffold Plugin
    ├── docker/                         --> optional: Docker Scaffold Plugin
    ├── composer.lock                   --> dependency manager
    ├── composer.json                   --> pinned dependencies
    ├── README.md
    ├── Makefile
    ├── .travis.yml
    ├── .gitlab-ci.yml
    └── vendor/                         --> composer packages

Implementations

Currently there are a few public GitHub projects leveraging the composer project workflow provided by WxT. Of interest is the Open Data project which houses its own install profile itself a sub-profile of WxT.

Deployer integration with Composer

One of the great things about Composer is the rich integration it provides deployment tools such as Deployer which is a popular deployment tool written in PHP with support for popular frameworks like Drupal out of the box. It largely relies on Composer to do the heavy lifting.

If you are interesting on what a deployment would look like to a server, along with a notification to slack please consult the following links:

Additional Resources

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